By Adeel Saeed
PESHAWAR, Sep 3 (APP):For Khaista Khan, an agriculturist and father of seven children, untimely and erratic rains not only decimated his peach laden orchards in the scenic Swat valley, but also shattered dreams to marry elder daughter from earnings he had anticipated from current season’s produce.
“Untimely rains coupled with hail storms during the season from February to May completely destroyed the orchards I had obtained on lease basis, depriving me of all my investment and income,” narrates Khaista.”
Cultivators are always mindful of losses to crops due to calamities and diseases, but enormous devastation destroying the whole produce is unexpected even for those associated with the practice from generations,” Khaista tells APP in a choked voice.
Peach (Prunus persica) is the second important stone fruit in Pakistan after plum and is considered as most favorite after mango because of its sweetness, juiciness, fleshiness, attractive flavour and aroma. “Located at an average elevation of 980 meters in mountainous Malakand division, an offshoot of Hindukush region, Swat valley produces majority of temperate season fruits including peach,” says Dr. Muhammad Ayaz, Director Agriculture Research Institute Swat.
“Colorful peach produced in Swat accounts for 80 percent of peach production of Pakistan,” claims Dr. Ayaz. Apart from peach, Swat is also famous for growing apples, plum and persimmon.Because of verdant alpine meadows and snow-capped mountains, Swat’s economy is mostly dependent on Tourism, constituting 38 percent, and 31 percent on agriculture produce.
In Swat, 70 percent population out of the total 2.4 million is associated with farming and current years’ weather changes have badly impacted livelihood of about one million cultivators, disclosed Dr. Ayaz while talking to APP.“Harvest and supply of `Swat Peaches’ starts in May and continues till September because of the diverse range of varieties grown,” says Adalat Khan, a PhD on `Peach Value Chain’ from Agriculture University Peshawar.
A total of eight varieties of peaches are produced in Swat and the early season fruit fetches the highest profit to growers due to its attractive taste, Adalat informed.
In tropical regions, only a couple of varieties of peach can be grown while the majority of varieties of the fruit can only be obtained from temperate regions.
“Inclement downpour and hailstorms during the months of March to June 2020 in Swat, standing crops ready for harvest on 20,000 hectares and fruit orchards on 15000 hectares have been severely damaged,” estimates Khpal Kaliwala Tanzeem (Our Villagers’ Organization), a representative body of Swat farmers.
Strong wind storms and torrential rains in Babuzai, Barikot, Kabal and Matta tehsils of Swat district have damaged 40 percent of wheat crop and 60 percent of fruit orchards, reads preliminary survey report of Khpal Kaliwala Organization.
“Farmers in Malakand were suffering losses due to climate change related calamities for the last several years, but this year’s loss is disastrous,” explains Fazal Maula, head of Khpal Kaliwala Tanzeem.
Apart from growers, thousands of labourers also suffered due to damage to crops and fruits because of climate change.
“Usually I employ 60 to 70 labourer at my orchards, but this year I have to lay off the majority of workers,” informs Abdul Haq, a grower from Charbagh area of Swat district.”Current year was worse in my 15 years career because the income was very nominal ” tells Shakhi Jan, a labour who belongs to Charsadda district and regularly goes to Swat for work in peach orchards.
Shakhi Jan said that he usually earned Rs. 80,000 to Rs. 100,000 on a seasonal basis, but this year’s income was much lower, restricting him to celebrate Eid-ul-Azha (an annual religious festival of Muslims) along with his family.
The Meteorological Department of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa validates unseasonal rains in Swat, indicating 106 mm more rain in initial months of 2020 than the rain received in 2019.In 2020, Swat received 534.2 mm of rain in March, April and May as compared to 227.5 mm of rain received during the same months in 2019.Data also shows that during these three months which are more important for peach season, the rain was in excess from average downpour percentage for the last 30 years, showing an increase of 57 mm in March, 72 mm in April and 59 mm in May.
“Increase in rain in Swat is because of changes in climate and also due to changes in intensity of sun heat and rays, altering weather and downpour timing,” comments Mushtaq Shah, Director MET Department KP.“Global climatic conditions keep on changing on an annual basis as a result of which timing and quantity of rain also changes” Mushtaq added.
Apart from rains, severe hail storms also wreaked enormous damage on orchards,” opined Iftikhar Ahmad, Agriculture Officer Matta Swat.Untimely rains during flowering season also caused an attack by `Brown Rot’ fungus during blossoming.“Every year I dispatch around 2.5 million cartons of eight kg of peach to different parts of the country, but this season have only sent half a million,” said Aman-e-Rome Bacha, Swat’s top dealer of Fruit and Vegetable.
Aman also disclosed that every year around 50,000 trucks were booked for transportation of peach, but this year around 12 to 13 thousands trucks were hired.Fruit shortage also caused rise in price of commodity, increasing from normal Rs. 500 to Rs. 1100 of each cotton of eight kg peach, apprised Rehmat Khan, President Fruit and Vegetable Markets Association Swat.
“In Pakistan, total area under peach cultivation is estimated as 14350 hectares while in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa peach growing land is 10028 hectares,” says Samiullah Gandapur, Director Crop Reporting Services Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.In 32 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the maximum area of land under peach trees is in Swat, measuring 7300 hectares.In 2019, Swat produced 53875 tonnes of peach out of the total of 73201 tonnes produced in KP, constituting 73.59 percent of total production of the province.
According to the Statistical report on crop reporting, Pakistan produced 72536 tonnes of peach in 2017-18 while KP produced 56776 tons during that period.
“The preliminary survey by Agriculture Department has estimated damage to 18000 metric tonnes of peach,” says Muhammad Uzair, District Director Agriculture Swat.Figures of total damage could be gauged after completion of the survey which needs time, Uzair said while talking with APP.
Pakistan is ranked by Global Climate Risk Index 2020 as fifth most vulnerable country to climate change and such damages were not strange happenings which would continue to be faced by people in future unless drastic measures are taken for prevention and mitigation, Uzar commented.